Destructive Testing: 

Destructive testing is undertaken in order to understand a specimen’s failure. performance or material behavior, these procedures are carried out to the test specimen’s failure. Destructive testing procedures can either follow specific standards or can be tailored to reproduce set service conditions.

Destructive testing methods are commonly used for materials characterization, fabrication validation, failure investigation, and can form a key part of   engineering critical assessments, which also involves non-destructive testing (NDT)    techniques such as digital radiography. 

Non-Destructive Testing: 

Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a testing and analysis technique used by industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component, structure or system for   characteristic differences or welding defects and discontinuities without causing damage to the original part. NDT also known as non-destructive examination (NDE), non-destructive inspection (NDI) and non-destructive evaluation (NDE)

Non-Destructive Testing Methods: 

Ultrasonic Testing (UT) 

Ultrasonic Testing entails the transmission of high frequency sound into a material to interact with features within the material that reflect or attenuate it.   Ultrasonic testing is broadly divided into Pulse Echo (PE), Through Transmission (TT) and Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD). 

Radiographic Testing (RT)

 Radiographic testing uses radiation passed through a test piece to detect defects. X-rays are commonly used for thin or less dense materials while gamma rays are used for thicker or denser items. The results can be processed using film radiography, computed radiography, computed tomography or digital  radiography. Whichever method is used, the radiation will show discontinuities in the material due to the strength of the radiation. 

Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)

This NDT process uses magnetic fields to find discontinuities at or near the surface of ferromagnetic materials. The magnetic field can be created with a permanent magnet or an electromagnet, which requires a current to be applied.

The magnetic field will highlight any discontinuities as the magnetic flux lines produce leakage, which can be seen by using magnetic particles that are drawn into the discontinuity. 

 Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) 

Liquid penetrant testing involves the application of a fluid with low viscosity to the material to be tested. This fluid seeps into any defects such as cracks or porosity before a developer is applied which allows the penetrant liquid to seep upwards and create a visible indication of the flaw. Liquid penetrant tests can be conducted using solvent removable penetrants, water washable penetrants or post-emulsifiable penetrants.